Southeast Asian Youth Environment Network

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Brunei Darussalam
Capital City : Bandar Seri Begawan
Government : Malay Islamic Monarchy
Population : 415,717 (2013 est)
Literacy : 93% (2001 census)
Unemployment : 2.6% (2011 est)
Ethnic Groups : Malay, Chinese, Indigenous Groups, Others
Natural Resources : Oil and Gas
Agriculture : Rice, fruits, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water
Industries : Construction, liquefied natural gas, petroleum, petroleum refining
Brunei and the Environment
Brunei Darussalam is located on the island of Borneo, bordered by the South China Sea and the Malaysian states, Sabah and Sarawak. It is a small, oil rich country made up of mostly flat coastal plains with mountains, hills and forests. Current environmental concerns include seasonal smoke and haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia. Brunei has been involved in several international conventions and agreements dealing with environmental issues, including the Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES), the ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, and the Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78). Within the region, Brunei is an active member of various ASEAN working groups on environmental issues such as nature conservation, environmental management, environmental economics, ASEAN seas and marine environment, transboundary movement, sub-regional fire fighting arrangements, and public awareness and education.
Brunei Darussalam Youth Representatives Profiles
Capital City : Phnom Penh
Government : Multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional monarchy
Population : 15,205,539 (2013 est)
Literacy : 77.6% (2008 census)
Unemployment : 0% (2011 est)
Ethnic Groups : Khmer, Vietnamese, Chinese, Others
Natural Resources : Oil and gas, timber, iron ore, gemstones, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Agriculture : Vegetables, cashews, corn, tapioca, rubber
Industries : Garments, textiles, tourism, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, fishing, rice milling
Cambodia and the Environment
Cambodia is located on the mainland of South East Asia, bordered by Thailand, Laos and Vietnam and the Gulf of Thailand on the west coast. Cambodia boasts distinctive cultural and natural wonders, including the famous Angkor Wat, Lake Tonle Sap and the Mekong and Bassac rivers. Approximately 75% of Cambodia’s population is involved in agriculture and forestry, contributing close to 40% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Thus, sustainable use of natural resources is an important factor for the country’s development. Tourism is another key factor to Cambodia’s economic development due to its cultural and natural wonders. The country’s reliance on these industries means that sustainable management of natural resources and other aspects of the environment are important for improving the livelihood and economic growth whilst protecting and conserving the natural environment. Although Cambodia is currently one of the most heavily forested countries in the region, rapid deforestation continues threatens that status.
Cambodia Youth Representatives Profiles
Capital City : Jakarta
Government : Republic
Population : 251,160,124 (2013 est)
Literacy : 90.4% (2004 est)
Unemployment : 6.1% (2012 est)
Ethnic Groups : Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Coastal Malays, Chinese, Others
Natural Resources : Petroleum, tin, natural gas, timber, bauxite, fertile soils, coal, nickel, copper , silver, gold
Agriculture : Rice, tapioca, peanuts, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs, rubber
Industries : Petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism.
Indonesia and the Environment
The Indonesian archipelago consists of 17,000 islands, only 6,000 of which are inhabited. The country lies on the “ring of fire” with the largest number of active volcanoes of any country in the world. Covering only about 1.3% of Earth’s land surface, Indonesia is rich in biodiversity. Indonesia’s islands are home to about 17% of the world’s plant and animal species, some of which cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Whilst economic growth has improved the quality of life for Indonesians, several environmental problems are threatening the nation’s environmental sustainability. Areas of concern include rapid deforestation and exploitation of natural resources, which threatens the habitat of endangered species and results in loss of livelihood for forest people and revenue for the government; wildlife trade, urban  air and water pollution and overfishing. These environmental problems are often a result of poverty, population increases, and poor natural resource governance and coordination.
Indonesia Youth Representatives Profiles
Capital City : Vientiane
Government : Communist
Population : 6,695,166 (2013 est)
Literacy : 73% (2005 census)
Unemployment : 2.5% (2009 est)
Ethnic Groups : Lao Loum (lowland), Lao Theung (upland), Lao Soung (highland) including the Hmong(“Meo”) and the Yao (Mien), ethnic Vietnamese/Chinese
Natural Resources : Timber, tin, gold, gemstones, gypsum, hydropower
Agriculture : Rice, vegetables, corn, coffee, sugarcane, tobacco, sweet potatoes, tea, peanuts, cotton,
water buffalo, pigs, cattle, poultry
Industries : Garments, tourism, cement, timber, electric power, agricultural processing, construction, and copper, tin, and gypsum mining
Laos and the Environment
Laos is a landlocked country bordered by Myanmar, China, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. It is covered in thick forests and mountains. The Mekong River flows through the country for 1,500 km of its course. Laos is one of the poorest countries in South East Asia but has a wealth of natural resources including its forests, the largest per capita volume of renewable water resources in ASEAN and abundant mineral resources. It is also rich in biodiversity and a number of animal species have been discovered in Laos. The Laotian government has recognised the importance of its natural resources for economic development and reducing poverty, which was reflected in its five-year plan, laws and decrees on natural resource management. In 1993, the government set aside a fifth of the country's land to be developed into a national park. However, unsustainable resource management practices have caused significant environmental damage despite the government’s best intentions. The forests have been reduced from 70% of Laos to a mere 43% over the last 50 years due land clearing for agricultural purposes and logging. Rapid urbanisation has increased pollution and highway construction, dam construction and extraction on the Mekong River have caused stress to the environment.
Laos Youth Representatives Profiles
Capital City : Kuala Lumpur
Government : Constitutional Monarchy
Population : 26,628,392 (2013 est)
Literacy : 89% (2003 est)
Unemployment : 3% (2012 est)
Ethnic Groups : Malay, Chinese, Indigenous, Indian, Others
Natural Resources : Tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite.
Agriculture : Peninsular—Palm oil, rubber, cocoa, rice; Borneo – Rubber timber, subsistence crops, coconuts, rice, pepper, timber.
Industries : Peninsular—Rubber and oil-palm processing and manufacturing, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging, timber processing; Borneo—logging, petroleum production and refining, agriculture, logging.
Malaysia and the Environment
Malaysia is a federation of thirteen states and three federal territories separated into two regions, the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Much of Malaysia is covered in rich forests and mountains and boasts beautiful beaches and national parks. The country is abundant in natural resources and the Straits of Malacca is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. Malaysia is one of the top exporters of rubber and palm oil. Rapid expansion of the timber industry has caused serious erosion problems, which is being managed by the Government on a sustainable basis that is resulting in the decline of tree felling. Malaysia also produces natural gas, oil, tin and minerals. The Malaysian Government has integrated energy and environmental sustainability issues into its policies and development plans. Malaysia is a party in Multilateral Environment Agreements such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and is a member of the Like-Minded Group of Megadiverse Countries. It enacted the Environment Quality Act (EQA) for the protection and control of environmental pollution and the enhancement of environmental quality. The environment is also included in Malaysia’s development plans such as the Third Malaysia Plan from 1976-1980, and the more recent Eight Malaysia Plan from 2001-2005 and the Outline Perspective Plan OPP2 from 2001-2010.
Malaysia Youth Representatives Profiles
Capital City : Yangon, Naypyidaw (Administrative Capital)
Government : Parliamentary
Population : 55,167,330 (2013 est)
Literacy : 89.9% (2006 est.)
Unemployment : 5.4% (2012 est)
Ethnic Groups : Burman, Shan, Karen, Rakhine, Chinese, Mon, Indian, Other
Natural Resources : Petroleum, timber, tin, lead, copper, zinc, antimony, tungsten, coal, precious stones, marble, limestone, natural gas, hydropower.
Agriculture : Rice, bean, sesame, pulses, groundnuts, hardwood, sugarcane, fish and fish products
Industries : Agricultural processing, knit and woven apparel, wood and wood products; copper, tin, iron, tungsten, construction materials, fertilizer, pharmaceuticals, cement; natural gas.
Myanmar and the Environment
Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh, India and the Bay of Bengal on the west, China to the north, Laos and Thailand to the east, and the Andaman Sea to the south. The country is covered with forests, expansive plains and mountains to the east and north. The Ayeyarwady River runs 1600km of its course through Myanmar and its flood plains form the main source of agriculture for the locals. Whilst slow economic growth has preserved much of the country’s environment and eco systems, widespread deforestation has become a problem due to timber concessions and smuggling. Other environmental concerns include industrial pollution of the air, soil and water, and inadequate sanitation and water treatment that contributes to the spread of diseases. Myanmar, however, is party to several international agreements on issues such as climate change, ozone layer protection, desertification, biodiversity, endangered species, laws of the sea and ship pollution, nuclear test bans and tropical timber.
Myanmar Youth Representatives Profiles
Capital City : Manila
Government : Republic
Population : 105,720,644 (2013 est)
Literacy : 96% (2003 est.)
Unemployment : 7% (2012 est)
Ethnic Groups : Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Bisaya/Binisaya, Hiligaynon Ilonggo, Bikol, Waray, Others
Natural Resources : Timber, petroleum, salt, nickel, cobalt, copper, silver, gold
Agriculture : Pork, eggs, beef; fish; sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassavas, pineapples, mangoes
Industries : Garments, electronics assembly, footwear, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing
The Philippines and the Environment
The Philippines is made up of an archipelago of over 7000 islands, only 7% of which are larger than a square mile and a third of which have names. The islands are volcanic and the larger ones are covered in mountain ranges. The Philippines is home to over 2500 species of sometimes rare plants and animals and is surrounded by tropical coral waters. The Philippines was one of the first countries to adopt Agenda 21, developed at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, and formulated its own national agenda. However, despite the government’s environmental efforts, population growth, urbanisation, industrialisation and improper natural resource management have caused many environmental problems. The Philippines’ forests are threatened by commercial logging and tree felling for agriculture. Population pressures have caused cultivation in fragile areas that in turn have caused soil erosion. The forests are also affected by clearing for urban development, illegal logging and forest fires. Water pollution is also becoming a problem in urban areas. Whilst garbage collection is improving, much of the country’s sewage remains untreated, resulting in polluted rivers, lakes and coasts, and disposal of harzardous and toxic waste is an environmental challenge. Marine life is affected by overexploitation, water pollution and coastal development. The government has however implemented a CFC Phase-Out Plan to combat ozone depletion and organic pollution.
Philippines Youth Representatives Profiles
Capital City : Singapore
Government : Parliamentary Republic
Population : 5,460,302 (2013 est)
Literacy : 93% (2003 est)
Unemployment : 1.9% (2012 est)
Ethnic Groups : Chinese, Malay, Indian, Others
Natural Resources : Deepwater ports, fish
Agriculture : Rubber, orchids, copra, fruit, vegetables; eggs, poultry; fish, ornamental fish.
Industries : Electronics, financial services, chemicals, petroleum refining, oil drilling equipment, rubber processing and rubber products, food and beverage processing, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepôt trade.
Singapore and the Environment
Singapore consists of a main island and 58 surrounding islands located off the southern tip of the Malaysian Peninsula. Although small, Singapore is one of the strongest Asian economies that serves as an important regional hub for many industries and businesses. Basic environmental concerns that Singapore faces is land scarcity, setting aside areas for nature conservation, continued protection of water catchment areas and public education. The government established the Singapore Green Plan, an environmental master plan that lays out the government’s work to manage the environment and resources, and maps out policies and strategies the government has implemented to transform Singapore into a Green City. Major policies address issues of pollution control and environmental health, planning and land use management, marine pollution and nature conservation. Singapore enjoys a clean and healthy environment due to investment in environmental infrastructure and tight legislation. To develop a sustainable water resource supply in the country, the Singapore Public Utilities Board (PUB) developed NEWater, recycled drinking water, in close partnership with the people and private sectors to turn Singapore’s water situation into a strategic advantage. The PUB also established the “3P” approach to Conserve, Value and Enjoy water, which included community engagement initiatives, outreach programmes and public education. For industries, The Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources controls the import, transport, storage and use of hazardous substances and promotes systems for environmental care. Public interest in nature conservation and recycling has also been rising due to educational programmes. Singapore is a signatory to several international and regional environmental agreements such as Agenda 21, The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Singapore Youth Representatives Profiles
Capital City : Bangkok
Government : Constitutional monarchy
Population : 67,448,120 (2013 est)
Literacy : 96% (2003 est)
Unemployment : 0.7% (2012 est)
Ethnic Groups : Thai, Chinese, Others
Natural Resources :
Tin, rubber, natural gas, timber, tantalum, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land, fish
Agriculture : Rice, tapioca, corn, sugarcane, soybeans, coconuts, rubber
Industries :
Tourism, textiles and garments, tungsten, tin, agricultural processing, tobacco, beverages, cement, automobiles and parts, light manufacturing, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts
Thailand and the Environment
Thailand is surrounded by Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia. It’s economic growth over the last thirty years has been accompanied by swift urbanisation, industrialisation and increased agricultural production and fishing. These activities, which rely on the country’s abundant and varied natural resources has caused several environmental problems including water and land degradation, loss of natural habitats, and water and air pollution, waste disposal issues. In response, the Thai Government and people have undertaken initiatives to improve air and water quality, reforest degraded land, adopt energy efficient technologies and invest in pollution abatement schemes. The World Bank has helped Thailand to develop environmental programmes to improve the quality of the environment and sustain natural resources in the country. Such initiatives include programmes for water, toxic and chemical waste management to improve air and water quality, strengthen compliances and financing of government environmental initiatives, develop projects for reforestation and conserving natural resources, as well as to help in phasing out Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS).
Thailand Youth Representatives Profiles
Capital City : Hanoi
Government : Communist state
Population : 92,477,857 (2013 est)
Literacy : 94% (2003 est)
Unemployment : 4.3% (2012 est)
Ethnic Groups : Kinh (Viet), Tay, Thai, Muong, Khome, Hoa, Nun, Hmong, Others
Natural Resources :
Forests, hydropower, offshore oil, phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits
Agriculture :
Rice, coffee, tea, rubber, cashew nuts, cotton, pepper, sugarcane, soybeans, bananas; poultry; seafood, fish
Industries :
 Food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; coal, steel, mining;  chemical fertilizer, cement, glass, oil, paper, tires
Vietnam and the Environment
Vietnam lies in the eastern and southern part of the Indochinese peninsula, with China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west and the Mekong Delta to the south. Vietnam’s environment is under much stress due to economic growth, urbanisation and human pressure on scarce natural resources. While the government has been improving its environmental regulatory framework, the country has limited capacity for implementing it. Therefore, continued economic growth, investments and infrastructure development may further threaten Vietnam’s environmental sustainability.
Vietnam Youth Representatives Profiles
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